land use law: an overview
In colonial America few regulations existed on the use of land due to the seemingly endless amounts of it. As society shifted from a rural to an urban society, public land regulation became important especially to city governments trying to control industry, commerce, and housing within its boundaries. The first zoning ordinance was passed in New York City in 1916 and by the 1930s, most states had adopted zoning laws. By the 1970s, concerns about the environment and historic preservation led to further regulation.
Today, federal, state, and local governments regulate growth and development through statutory law. The majority of controls on land, however, stem from actions of private developers and individuals. Three typical situations involving such private entities and the court system are: suits brought by one neighbor against another; suits brought by a public official against a neighboring landowner on behalf of the public; and suits involving individuals who share ownership of a particular parcel of land. In these settings judicial determination and enforcement of private land-use arrangements can not only reinforce public regulation but achieve forms and levels of control zoning cannot.
Two major federal laws have been passed in the last half century that curb the use of land significantly. These are the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (today embodied in 16 U.S.C. 461 et seq.); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ( 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).